Category Archives: Social Science

歡迎光臨人類學書評 Review of “An invitation to anthropology”

IDEO創辦人Tom Kelley寫的「 決定未來的10種人」中談到了人類學讓我對該學問產生興趣,於是我挑選人類學系所入門書「歡迎光臨人類學」當做我進入該專業領域的橋樑。

本書共分成七章,第一章介紹人類學發展史、第二章談論人類學分支、第三章討論常用的田野記錄方法民族誌,前三章頁數佔據本書約一半內容,主要是讓讀者了解這門學科的主要架構,後面三章(關於性別,婚姻/家屬,宗教議題)則是聊聊人類學家感興趣的議題,位居於中間第四章是引導讀者認識後面議題探討人類歷史。

談論的主題即使涉及許多人類學專有名詞,在作者善用說故事技能添加於學術理論交錯的文字中,非專業背景讀者也能了解難理解的理論,每章後面均附上出處方便想知道更深入議題的人查閱。

讀完本身發現人類學實際應用在生活中無所不在,舉第三章民族誌為例,人類學家在做觀察會經歷幾個重要階段(進入 — 》文化衝擊 — 》建立和諧密切關係 — 》文化理解),我曾參加過某教會團契活動,教會裡面弟兄姐妹會熱烈親切地歡迎外來新朋友,xxx是帶我的小組長(進入),

有一天參與教會舉辦的戶外活動,活動中有場禱告會教導大家發出一些奇怪聲音語言,他們稱作方言,接著會按手在對方身體用方言替人做醫治釋放禱告,有些人被禱告後會開始哭泣、身體顫抖、嘔吐(文化衝擊),除了這些特殊儀式會嚇到外人,他們跟非信徒沒什麼不同(建立友好關係),後來才知道靈恩體驗是教友們身心靈力量來源之一,教友們也非常積極走出教會外做義工傳福音(文化理解)。

Review of “An invitation to anthropology”

I generated some interests after reading “The ten faces of innovation” by the founder of IDEO, Tom Kelley, who talks about anthropologist. I chose an introduction book used in college called “An invitation to anthropology”.

This book contains 7 chapters. The first chapter introduces the history of anthropology and second chapter talks about the division of anthropology. The third chapter discusses the often-used fieldwork method called ethnography. The main purpose of first three chapters occupying almost half of this book is discussing the main structure of anthropology. The last three chapters (gender, marriage/family, and religion)are issues which anthropologists have interests in. Chapter 4 is talking about human history as a bridge to the last three chapters.

The author blended many stories with academic articles so that even non-professional reader could understand these terminologies with ease. Every chapter outlines article sources so that It’s convenient to find and search them if you want to learn more.

The application of anthropology exists everywhere. Using chapter 3, ethnography, as an example. Every anthropologist should experience several key steps(entrée → cultural shock → establishing rapport → cultural understanding) when doing field work. I’d once participated a cell group in a church. The brothers or sisters always give all new visitor a warm welcome. XXX is my group leader(entrée). One day I joined an outside activity held by this church. They taught us pronouncing strange voice, called tongue. Then, they healed and released us by speaking in tongue and pressing their hands on us. Some persons started crying, trembling and vomiting (cultural shock). They behaved nothing different when compared to non-Christian except for these special rituals. I made friends with them(establish a rapport). Afterward, I’d gradually understood charismatic experience gives them the energy to go ahead. They’ll use this kind of power to preach the gospel(cultural understanding).

作觀察要看背後的脈絡而不是行為

舉例來說:吃狗肉很殘忍嗎?
在一般人眼裡狗是披著毛的小小人類,每當人們透過新聞媒體看到吃狗肉事件,死掉的狗兒為同情對象,當然殺狗者被當成了野蠻未開化地公幹對象,人類學家告訴我們自己常會倚賴自己的世界觀對外在環境做出錯誤的認知判斷,美國原住民夏延-阿拉帕霍人(Cheyenne-Arapaho)會吃狗肉,但他們看待狗的方式也是毛茸茸的小人兒,原來在部落間流傳著一個古老的傳說,當他們經歷饑荒餓到快死時,家裡面養的狗告訴他們願意犧牲自己性命給他們充飢用,以至於這個部落才有辦法存活下來,這傳說流傳到現今,夏延-阿拉帕霍人為了感謝狗的付出每年在太陽舞慶典時期會儀式性的舉辦吃狗肉活動,所以同樣是吃狗肉行為背後隱藏地意義卻決然不同,在夏延-阿拉帕霍人眼裡其實比愛狗人士更愛狗。

 

另一個例子基督教的耶穌假使活在現今社會,廢死聯盟應該會反對耶穌基督被處死認為這是不人道的法律,但在基督徒信仰中因為耶穌代替罪人上十字架受死,這些信徒罪人才有辦法活-我已經與基督同釘十字架;現在活著的,不再是我,乃是基督在我裡面活著。(加拉太書二20)