分類彙整:Social Science

上級國民/下級國民-讀書心得

上級國民/下級國民:當加薪、買房、搭郵輪、談戀愛、休長假永遠與你無關,還能怎麼辦?
(博客來)

受到全球化、自由主義影響。大家理想上的目標一致都想追求更自由、更富有、更幸福,,但也因為這些因素人們被迫分成上級國民、下級國民,從美國白人中產階級瓦解、日本繭居族、歐美日台厭女男性變多等,不同階級抗爭的情形全世界到處都在發生中,如果事情已經演變成如此,人民該如何面對未來呢?作者橘玲認為沒有適用任何人的方式,但今後的工作趨勢會演變成靠抽象知識、名譽來謀生。而跟不上潮流的,僅能靠民主政治來處理類似民粹主義的問題

無論個人到底是處在哪一階層,要設法找到模式維生,若有機會向上流動看看上層風景,給自己一點啟發,遇到與你完全不同背景立場的人,多點同理心思考包容,或許當不成好友,但至少不要因此多一個敵人。

歡迎光臨人類學書評 Review of “An invitation to anthropology”

IDEO創辦人Tom Kelley寫的「 決定未來的10種人」中談到了人類學讓我對該學問產生興趣,於是我挑選人類學系所入門書「歡迎光臨人類學」當做我進入該專業領域的橋樑。

本書共分成七章,第一章介紹人類學發展史、第二章談論人類學分支、第三章討論常用的田野記錄方法民族誌,前三章頁數佔據本書約一半內容,主要是讓讀者了解這門學科的主要架構,後面三章(關於性別,婚姻/家屬,宗教議題)則是聊聊人類學家感興趣的議題,位居於中間第四章是引導讀者認識後面議題探討人類歷史。

談論的主題即使涉及許多人類學專有名詞,在作者善用說故事技能添加於學術理論交錯的文字中,非專業背景讀者也能了解難理解的理論,每章後面均附上出處方便想知道更深入議題的人查閱。

讀完本身發現人類學實際應用在生活中無所不在,舉第三章民族誌為例,人類學家在做觀察會經歷幾個重要階段(進入 — 》文化衝擊 — 》建立和諧密切關係 — 》文化理解),我曾參加過某教會團契活動,教會裡面弟兄姐妹會熱烈親切地歡迎外來新朋友,xxx是帶我的小組長(進入),

有一天參與教會舉辦的戶外活動,活動中有場禱告會教導大家發出一些奇怪聲音語言,他們稱作方言,接著會按手在對方身體用方言替人做醫治釋放禱告,有些人被禱告後會開始哭泣、身體顫抖、嘔吐(文化衝擊),除了這些特殊儀式會嚇到外人,他們跟非信徒沒什麼不同(建立友好關係),後來才知道靈恩體驗是教友們身心靈力量來源之一,教友們也非常積極走出教會外做義工傳福音(文化理解)。

Review of “An invitation to anthropology”

I generated some interests after reading “The ten faces of innovation” by the founder of IDEO, Tom Kelley, who talks about anthropologist. I chose an introduction book used in college called “An invitation to anthropology”.

This book contains 7 chapters. The first chapter introduces the history of anthropology and second chapter talks about the division of anthropology. The third chapter discusses the often-used fieldwork method called ethnography. The main purpose of first three chapters occupying almost half of this book is discussing the main structure of anthropology. The last three chapters (gender, marriage/family, and religion)are issues which anthropologists have interests in. Chapter 4 is talking about human history as a bridge to the last three chapters.

The author blended many stories with academic articles so that even non-professional reader could understand these terminologies with ease. Every chapter outlines article sources so that It’s convenient to find and search them if you want to learn more.

The application of anthropology exists everywhere. Using chapter 3, ethnography, as an example. Every anthropologist should experience several key steps(entrée → cultural shock → establishing rapport → cultural understanding) when doing field work. I’d once participated a cell group in a church. The brothers or sisters always give all new visitor a warm welcome. XXX is my group leader(entrée). One day I joined an outside activity held by this church. They taught us pronouncing strange voice, called tongue. Then, they healed and released us by speaking in tongue and pressing their hands on us. Some persons started crying, trembling and vomiting (cultural shock). They behaved nothing different when compared to non-Christian except for these special rituals. I made friends with them(establish a rapport). Afterward, I’d gradually understood charismatic experience gives them the energy to go ahead. They’ll use this kind of power to preach the gospel(cultural understanding).